by those unable to support themselves without charity. As William James remarked, Spencer "enlarged the imagination, and set free the speculative mind of countless doctors, engineers, and lawyers, of many physicists and chemists, and of thoughtful laymen generally." 33 The aspect of his thought that emphasised individual self-improvement found a ready audience. Herbert Spencer: A Renewed Appreciation. The synthetic philosophy in outline Spencer saw philosophy as a synthesis of the fundamental principles of the special sciences, a sort of scientific summa to replace the theological systems of the Middle Ages. Social Statics (1851. 22 He also argued that the individual had a "right to ignore the state." 23 As a result of this perspective, Spencer was harshly critical of patriotism. There were also some quite significant satellites such as liberal clergyman Arthur Stanley, the Dean of Westminster; and guests such as Charles Darwin and Hermann von Helmholtz were entertained from time to time. His uncle, the Reverend Thomas Spencer, 7 vicar of Hinton Charterhouse near Bath, completed Spencer's limited formal education by teaching him some mathematics and physics, and enough Latin to enable him to translate some easy texts. Spencer is often, quite erroneously, believed to have merely appropriated and generalised Darwin's work on natural selection.
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Herbert Spencer British philosopher
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His Principles of Biology was a standard text at Oxford. Nevertheless, Spencers view of such ameliorative legislation as a pernicious aid to the unfit and an impediment to the positive development of society through the success of its most-talented members was gradually discredited as the misery of the poor under industrial capitalism became more widely. In order to prepare the ground for The Principles of Sociology, Spencer started in 1873 a series of works called Descriptive Sociology, in which information was provided about the social institutions of various societies, both primitive and civilized. Herbert Spencer, the Washington Intellectual Community, and American Conservation in the Late Nineteenth Century. Citation needed By the 1890s his readership had begun to desert him while many of his closest friends died and he had come to doubt the confident faith in progress that he had made the center-piece of his philosophical system. His idea of evolutionary progress, from the simple to the complex, provided a conceptual framework that was productive and that justifies granting to him the title father of comparative sociology.
In The Man Versus the State (1884 he wrote that Englands Tories generally favour a military and Liberals an industrial social order but that the Liberals of the latter half of the 19th century, with their legislation on hours of work, liquor licensing, sanitation, education. His ideas of laissez-faire and the survival of the fittest by natural selection fitted very well into an age of rapid expansion and ruthless business competition. 222;"d in Robert. Spencer declined an offer from his uncle, the Reverend Thomas Spencer, to send him.