argued that the prayers were coercive and Christian that violated the constitutional rights of atheists. The defendants countered that the prayers were non-compulsory and non-denominational.
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Facts, a New York State law required public schools to open each day with the Pledge of Allegiance and a nondenominational prayer in which the students recognized their dependence upon God. The Supreme Court upheld the Equal Access Act against an Establishment Clause challenge, saying that "neutrality" and no "hostility" to religion is all that is required by the First Amendment. The club argued that the school's action violated their Free Exercise rights and the federal Equal Access Act. Before football games, members of the student body of a Texas high school elected one of their classmates to address the players and spectators. M, significant person essay (January 01, 2000). Vitale (1962) Supreme Court decision:. They resulted in no harm and were just as constitutional as the prayers that opened the Supreme Court. Justice William Douglas wrote a strong concurring opinion, writing that not only the prayer but the Pledge of Allegiance, In God We Trust.S.
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